Unit of length for DNA fragments equal to 1 million nucleotides
and roughly equal to 1 cM.
See also: centimorgan (ORNL)
The process of two consecutive cell divisions in the diploid
progenitors of sex cells. Meiosis results in four rather than
two daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes.
See also: mitosis (ORNL)
One method in which genetic traits are passed from parents
to offspring. Named for Gregor Mendel, who first studied and
recognized the existence of genes and this method of inheritance.
See also: autosomal dominant,
recessive gene, sex-linked
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA that serves as a template for protein synthesis.
See also: genetic code (ORNL)
A stage in mitosis or meiosis during which the chromosomes
are aligned along the equatorial plane of the cell. (ORNL)
Sets of miniaturized chemical reaction areas that may also
be used to test DNA fragments, antibodies, or proteins. (ORNL)
The study of genes and gene function in bacteria, archaea,
and other microorganisms. Often used in research in the fields
of bioremediation, alternative energy, and disease prevention.
See also: model organisms,
A technique for introducing a solution of DNA into a cell
using a fine microcapillary pipet. (ORNL)
The genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles
that generate energy for the cell. Not inherited in the same
fashion as nucleic DNA.
See also: cell, DNA,
An alignment of three or more sequences with gaps inserted
in the sequences such that residues with common structural positions
and/or ancestral residues are aligned in the same column. Clustal
W is one of the most widely used multiple sequence alignment
A laboratory approach that performs multiple sets of reactions
in parallel (simultaneously); greatly increasing speed and throughput.