Gel-filled silica capillaries used to separate fragments for
DNA sequencing. The small diameter of the capillaries permit
the application of higher electric fields, providing high
speed, high throughput separations that are significantly
faster than traditional slab gels. (ORNL)
Something which causes cancer to occur by causing changes
in a cell's DNA.
See also: mutagen (ORNL)
An individual who possesses an unexpressed, recessive trait.
A collection of DNA sequences that code for genes. The sequences
are generated in the laboratory from mRNA sequences.
See also: messenger RNA (ORNL)
A unit of measure of recombination frequency. One centimorgan
is equal to a 1% chance that a marker at one genetic locus
will be separated from a marker at a second locus due to crossing
over in a single generation. In human beings, one centimorgan
is equivalent, on average, to one million base pairs.
See also: megabase (ORNL)
The self-replicating genetic structure of cells containing
the cellular DNA that bears in its nucleotide sequence the
linear array of genes. In prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA is
circular, and the entire genome is carried on one chromosome.
Eukaryotic genomes consist of a number of chromosomes whose
DNA is associated with different kinds of proteins. (ORNL)
Attachment of certain fluorescent dyes to targeted parts of
the chromosome. Used as a diagnositic for particular diseases,
e.g. types of leukemia. (ORNL)
Chromosome region p
A designation for the short arm of a chromosome. (ORNL)
Chromosome region q
A designation for the long arm of a chromosome. (ORNL)
Using specialized DNA technology to produce multiple, exact
copies of a single gene or other segment of DNA to obtain
enough material for further study. This process, used by researchers
in the Human Genome Project, is referred to as cloning DNA.
The resulting cloned (copied) collections of DNA molecules
are called clone libraries. A second type of cloning exploits
the natural process of cell division to make many copies of
an entire cell. The genetic makeup of these cloned cells,
called a cell line, is identical to the original cell. A third
type of cloning produces complete, genetically identical animals
such as the famous Scottish sheep, Dolly.
See also: cloning vector
DNA molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell
of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment of appropriate
size can be integrated without loss of the vector's capacity
for self-replication; vectors introduce foreign DNA into host
cells, where the DNA can be reproduced in large quantities.
Examples are plasmids, cosmids, and yeast artificial chromosomes;
vectors are often recombinant molecules containing DNA sequences
from several sources. (ORNL)
Closed, Partly Opened and Opened
For all-alpha structures describes the extent in which the
hydrophobic core is screened by the comprising alpha-helices.
Opened means that there is space for at least one more helix
to be easily attached to the core (SCOP)
DNA that is synthesized in the laboratory from a messenger
RNA template. (ORNL)
Nucleic acid base sequence that can form a double-stranded
structure with another DNA fragment by following base-pairing
rules (A pairs with T and C with G). The complementary sequence
to GTAC for example, is CATG. (ORNL)
Trait that has a genetic component that does not follow strict
Mendelian inheritance. May involve the interaction of two
or more genes or gene-environment interactions.
See also: Mendelian inheritance,
Artificially constructed cloning vector containing the cos
gene of phage lambda. Cosmids can be packaged in lambda phage
particles for infection into E. coli; this permits cloning
of larger DNA fragments (up to 45kb) than can be introduced
into bacterial hosts in plasmid vectors. (ORNL)
connection links secondary structures at the opposite ends
of the structural core and goes across the surface of the
The breaking during meiosis of one maternal and one paternal
chromosome, the exchange of corresponding sections of DNA,
and the rejoining of the chromosomes. This process can result
in an exchange of alleles between chromosomes.
See also: recombination (ORNL)