A full set of genetic material consisting of paired chromosomes,
one from each parental set. Most animal cells except the gametes
have a diploid set of chromosomes. The diploid human genome
has 46 chromosomes.
See also: haploid (ORNL)
A laboratory process used on isolated molecules or microbes
to cause mutations and identify subsequent adaptations to novel
The molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a double-stranded
molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides.
The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases adenine (A), guanine
(G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs form
only between A and T and between G and C; thus the base sequence
of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.
A service that stores DNA extracted from blood samples or
other human tissue. (ORNL)
A discrete portion of a protein assumed to fold independently
of the rest of the protein and possessing its own function.
A discrete portion of a protein with its own function. The
combination of domains in a single protein determines its overall
Conserved structural entities with distinctive secondary structure
content and an hydrophobic core. In small disulphide-rich
and Zn2+-binding or Ca2+- binding domains the hydrophobic
core may be provided by cystines and metal ions, respectively.
Homologous domains with common functions usually show sequence
Proteins with the same domain composition have at least one
copy of each of domains of the query. (SMART)
Proteins having all the domains as the query in the same order
(Additional domains are allowed)). (SMART)
The sequence generated by the HGP as of June 2000 that, while
incomplete, offers a virtual road map to an estimated 95%
of all human genes. Draft sequence data are mostly in the
form of 10,000 base pair-sized fragments whose approximate
chromosomal locations are known.
See also: sequencing, finished
DNA sequence, working
draft DNA sequence (ORNL)